In recent decades, work has been affected by a number of social changes (the increase of women in the labour force, for example) and technical breakthroughs (the explosion of ICTs). The restructuring of such a core element of our daily activity schedule has also redefined our habits, constraints and movements. In order to capture how new work modalities impact other activities, this research departs from the traditional time frame for analyzing mobility (the day) in favour of a broader framework that encompasses all aspects of our fractured lives.
Benjamin Motte-Baumvol est maître de conférences à l’université de Bourgogne (géographie, UMR6049 du CNRS, UFR Sciences Humaines).
Olivier Bonin, geographer, is a researcher at the IFSTTAR and assistant director of the LVMT (Laboratoire Ville Mobilité Transport).
Leslie Belton Chevallier
Leslie Belton Chevallier is a researcher at the IFSTTAR (Institut Français des Sciences et Technologies des Transports, de l'Aménagement et des Réseaux). A sociologist of mobilities and lifestyles, her work focuses on understanding mobility practices, their social and spatial constructions and their evolution, notably relative to the spread of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and to sustainable development requirements and imperatives.
Research er in Sustainable Transport
Giulio Mattioli is Research Fellow in Sustainable Transport at the Sustainability Research Institute and the Institute of Transport Studies at the University of Leeds (UK). His research interests include car dependence, transport disadvantage, and the barriers to socially and environmentally sustainable transport. He has recently led a research project on transport affordability, funded by the British Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. He is managing guest editor of a forthcoming special issue of the academic journal ‘Transport Policy’ on ‘Household transport costs, economic stress and vulnerability, at the interface between mobility, domestic energy and residential location’.
I. The project's goal
Work environments have changed in recent decades, particularly as a result of the increase in working women, the shift in employer-employee relations, and the growing importance of information and communication technologies (ICTs). These developments affect where and when professional activities take place during the working day, which could have an impact on the overall mobility of workers and even those who move with or for them. Indeed, by structuring activity schedules, work is likely to affect other types of daily activities that are often coupled or synchronized with the beginning or end of work, or because of the increasing porosity between work and other activities enabled by ICTs.
The purpose of this research project is to understand how changes in working days are causing changes in daily travel.
The initial hypothesis is twofold:
- Working days are becoming more and more atypical with the increased variability in schedules and workplaces. Work-related travel should, therefore, become more variable and frequent;
- The greater diversity in working days also leads to greater variability, between the days of the week, in out-of-home activities and related travel.
II. Research approach
To thoroughly investigate the different temporalities of work and the mobilities that flow from them directly (home-to-work trips, business travel, etc.) or indirectly (such as accompanying someone or getting household supplies), it seems necessary to move beyond the “traditional” timeframe for analyzing mobility which is the day.
The project relies on data from the UK National Travel Survey (NTS) that uses an observation period of a full week. It has been carried out annually since 1995 and covers a representative sample of the country's population.
In France, the National Transport Displacement Survey is only carried out every ten years or so, while its observation period is only one working day and one weekend day. Thus, the data from the British NTS offers observational possibilities that aren’t available with the existing surveys in France and many other European countries. In particular this data:
- makes it possible to take into account the variations of working days between the different days of the week.
- enables us to observe the evolution of working days, in terms of schedules and locations, continuously over a period of twenty years.
These two possibilities make the British NTS one of the few existing data sources that allow for a disaggregated examination of the articulation between working days and other out-of-home activities.